Tag Archives: Steve Biko

Week 6: Overview & Reflection

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The Physiopedia  PHT402 Professional Ethics Course has been such an exciting CPD activity and eye-opening experience.   It is  a blessing to be able to connect with physiotherapists and students from different walks of life, all around the globe, as each on of us have valuable and diverse perceptions and opinions to share.  It has been an amazing journey, brainstorming, writing and discussing challenging and thought-provoking moral and ethical dilemmas of life and physiotherapy practice.  This will be my final blog post reflecting on the PHT402 course and my learning portfolio.

 

albert einstein

 

The themes I found particularly difficult was equality, torture and assisted dying.  These topics challenged me to objectively look both sides of the coin and argue the point of view or opinion I share.  I tried to look at it, firstly as a human being and secondly as a health care professional.  After receiving some feedback from my peers, I realised that I kept my distance from sharing too much of my professional experience in every post, as I felt that I may become judgmental if I try and use patient experiences and analyse their behaviour or decisions.  In addition to my weekly post, I wrote a reflective post after reading and discussing with other participants the theme of the week on my original blog post and theirs, which made it easier to identify areas I need to develop and summarise opinions and perspectives.  As in life, there were some participants who did not share my opinion on or perception of various topics/themes, but I respect this difference of opinion and accept that it is their prerogative to freedom of speech and expression.  Furthermore, I applaud the brave participants who went against the grain and who took an honest  look at themselves and/or their lives and admitted their fears, shortcomings, challenges and personal experiences.  It is a wonderful opportunity to be “forced” to be open-minded and take a good, hard look at yourself, your life and your practice.  I will definitely incorporate what I have learned in my life and practice.  Mostly to be careful of becoming too involved with my little patients and truly respect the decisions and opinions of all my patients, while still following the rule of the law.

 

It was really hard for me to write my blog post on equality, as I had so much to say and found myself jumping around and not settling on a specific direction.  Growing up and living in South Africa, I had to be sensitive and really search high and low to find diverse and relatable information on equality.  It was so interesting to read the posts by my fellow participants residing in a different country, experiencing equality, as a global issue and struggle.  To sum up my opinion on equality…  Equality is an idealistic notion.  Due to political and social interference, inequality is more common in reality.   You have no right to judge or discriminate against another human being because you don’t approve of their choices or behaviour.   It is with sensitivity and an open mind that we need to approach matters of equality, as seen in the current debate on marriage equalityracismsexual orientation and gender identity.   I believe that focusing on how you act and engage with others, is what is important. It is a personal goal to try and see people without judgement, as your equal, a human being, deserving of equal respect, protection, understanding, kindness and care. This should be carried forward into our practice as health care professionals.

 

Week 4’s theme of torture really touched me deeply.  Just imagining being tortured or someone I loved being tortured gave me such an emotional reaction that it took me some time to gather my thoughts and start researching this topic objectively.  The discussion on my blog post and many other participants’ blogs, revolved around when we condemn torture for one reason but perceive it as acceptable for another.  I am still of the opinion that the concern needs to be on the protection of the human rights of all human beings.   I believe we should respect the rule of law and the principle of upholding fundamental rights and freedoms, for all, even when we personally feel that a person (terrorist or criminal) is not deserving of any rights as a human being.  This is particularly important in clinical practice where student-physiotherapists and physiotherapists in public health sector are faced with treating incarcerated human beings.  As health care professionals we must treat all our patients equally without judgement and not allow or cause them any discomfort or pain as a result of refusing or delaying treatment (as seen in the Steve Biko case).   It is sad that torture is still in practice, globally, behind closed doors in police and military custody.

 

This 5th week’s theme of assisted-dying and end-of-life decision-making, was difficult for me as a physiotherapist (who is trained to improve quality of life) and a Buddhist (who believes in freedom from suffering), trying to objectively see and argue both sides of the coin without judgement. I have no idea what my choice will be when I am in a situation where I am given the choice or when it comes up in a discussion again. That is the beauty of life, we grow, we change, we evolve.   I know that my opinion and perspective on this will change as my life changes in the years to come.  Exploring the relationship and comparison between passive involuntary assisted-dying (legalised abortion) and voluntary assisted-dying (the last human right) helped me put things in perspective.  After reading my fellow participants’ blogs, I conclude that everyone has the right to life and to be treated with dignity and respect, in life and death.

 

I would like to thank all my fellow participants for reading my posts and engaging discussions on these sensitive topics that we face on a daily basis in life and practice.  I will leave this course as a better human being with a new found understanding and goal, to live a balanced life, cherish human compassion and seek further understanding of the complexity of human connection.

 

I will leave you with “The Physics of the Quest”, something to live by:

“If you are brave enough to leave behind everything familiar and comforting;

and set out on a truth-seeking journey;

and if you are truly willing to regard everything that happens to you on that journey as a clue;

and if you accept everyone you meet along the way as a teacher;

and if you are prepared, most of all, to face and forgive some very difficult realities about yourself;

Then truth will not be withheld from you.”

Elizabeth Gilbert: Eat, Pray, Love

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For PHT402 Professional Ethics Course: Week 6: Overview

 

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Week 4: Torture & Human Rights

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“The argument cannot be that we should not torture because it does not work.
The argument must be that we should not torture because it is wrong.”
Jason Michelich 

human rights

Next month will mark the 36th anniversary of the death and case resolution of anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko, who in 1977 died of head injuries sustained during interrogation/torture while in South African Security Police custody, with identified gross inadequacies in the medical management.  In addition, since 2008, Xenophobia hit South Africa like a disease, and it’s still relevant.  Many black South Africans living in the townships felt that the massive, uncontrolled influx of “illegal immigrants” or “asylum seekers” were taking the job opportunities from the “native black South Africans”, which has led to acts of Xenophobia (including discrimination, violence and torture) in a community already suffering from social crises and poverty.  The concern needs to be on the protection of the human rights of all human beings, including foreign nationals.  Another relevant issue of  torture and human rights violation occurred in the South African “Marikana” massacre in 2012, with 44 deaths and 76 injured South Africans.  Police brutality (lethal use of force) reared its ugly head again, but this time it was not the white Apartheid Police Force firing upon black South Africans, it was the “new South African” Police Force, firing on their own people, supposedly in self-defense and crowd control.  The South African president commissioned an inquiry to investigate matters of public, national and international concern arising out of the tragic incidents at the Lonmin Mine in Marikana.  Should the police have acted so brutally and opened fire on all the strikers or just those that were attacking them, those that “initiated” the attack?  What about those human beings, the “strikers”, who were shot in the back as they were running away and those that were “gunned down” and even tortured before death?

These events have led to Amnesty International publishing a document in 2012 on the current status of and recommendations to the South African Prevention and Combating of Torture of Persons Bill, urging that its scope be expanded to reflect the full extent of South Africa’s obligations under the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and to uphold and protect the rights of asylum seekers and refugees.  As we have discussed in week 3 on the topic of equality, violating, suppressing basic human rights of any human being, is legally, morally and ethically wrong.

There has also been much talk and controversy surrounding the 2013 released blockbuster “Zero Dark Thirty” as it depicts the use of military and intelligence interrogation and torture-practices in the “fight against terror”.  Torture, carried out or sanctioned by individuals, groups and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, is the act of deliberately inflicting intense physical pain, combined with emotional/psychological stress and deprivation of basic care and needs, to a person who is unable to protect himself.  The reasons for torture include interrogation, punishment, revenge, political or the sadistic gratification.  Many support the anti-torture argument on the fact that torture is hugely unreliable means of obtaining information, that often turns out to be redundant or misleading.  Others argue that the “well-being and protection of defenseless human beings and for the greater good of the country” it is more important than the issue of violating Human Rights of  a terrorist or criminal/prisoner of war.  Pro-torture individuals or groups often state that “brutalization brings breakthroughs”, and that torture is at times necessary or required to gain valuable intelligence/insight/information to stop future attacks/violence and to bring criminals/terrorists to justice.  For me, more importantly, and from a Human Rights point of view, torture is morally and ethically wrong.

We all know that terrorist activity violates various Human Rights, including the right to life; rights to non-discrimination, including equal rights for women and girls; right to a fair trial; freedom of religion and belief; freedom of expression and information; the right to vote and participate in public affairs etc.  Therefore, measures against terrorism can have an important role in protecting human rights but counter-terrorism laws can also have a profound impact in limiting fundamental human rights and freedoms, including the right to a fair trial; the right not to be subjected to arbitrary detention; freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; the right to freedom of expression; the right to freedom of movement; the right to privacy; the right to non-discrimination and the right to an effective remedy for a breach of human rights.

So the question is, should a terrorist “loose” his rights as a human being?  What about a criminal who took the life of an innocent human being or child?  Should he/she still have rights?  I believe we should respect the rule of law and the principle of upholding fundamental rights and freedoms, for all, even when we personally feel that a person (terrorist or criminal) is not deserving of any rights as a human being.

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For PHT402 Professional Ethics Course:  Week 4 – Torture & Human Rights